Our Eyes Were Opened

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Let’s Get Some Perspective…Please

Such huge dollar amounts are being thrown around these days: $14 billion for a wall between the United States and Mexico or $1.5 million for one condominium on a site where a small mom and pop grocery store used to stand.  Because I have worked for years as an advocate for people who are poor and have had to struggle to find resources to assist just a few people with basic necessities, hot showers, assistance with getting a GED or a job, these numbers seem obscene to me.

Just think, $14 billion dollars could provide a year of education for 13 million school children or housing for 49,993 homeless US veterans for eighteen  years or  for adoption fees for all 415,000 kids in foster care in the US AND provide each one a $50k college scholarship!  This seems to me to provide more stability for our country than a wall which doesn’t really work anyway.

The four unit building with the $1.5 million penthouse could provide houses for almost 28 families in Greenville SC at the median price of $152,500.

Let’s get some perspective and not let our fear or our greed blur our vision.


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Poverty in the Classroom

Why is that child so rude?

What is wrong with that mother that she allows her daughter to come to school dressed like that?

Why doesn’t he ever do his homework?

That child is so lazy that he sleeps in class every day!

For more than thirty years, I have worked with issues of poverty—both with people who live in poverty as well as with those who want to help.  Even though I began my career as a secondary math teacher, most of my life has been spent working with poverty, first as an executive director of a large nonprofit and then as the founder and CEO of Our Eyes Were Opened, Inc., a program that helps people who want to reach out to those who live in poverty to do so with wisdom and compassion.

I have heard comments such as those at the beginning of this article spoken by teachers when I’ve been asked to provide training for them about how to successfully work with children who live in poverty. I’ve heard variations of these comments as well as many other rather disparaging statements from all kinds of people—civic leaders, church people, business people, agency staff, and board members— when talking about those who may be different from them.

Comments such as these may indicate a gap in our fund of knowledge—those things we think we know because they are common sense to us.  The concept of “fund of knowledge” is powerful in helping us to understand people’s differences. We each have a distinct fund of knowledge, based on things we learned from the family in which we grew up and our education, socioeconomic status, race or ethnicity, age, gender, geography, religious affiliation as well as a host of life experiences.  For example, men will have a different fund of knowledge than women.  People who have lived in a community their entire lives will have a different fund of knowledge than newcomers. Someone can say, “Turn at the intersection where the hospital used to be” and a long-time resident will know exactly where to turn but a newcomer will not. Because we absorb our fund of knowledge without even conscious effort, we assume that everyone thinks like we do, or believes what we believe, or approaches life and its problems like we do. We assume that the solution that will work for me will, of course, work for you.

This is faulty thinking. When we are raised in middle class homes, our fund of knowledge will be different from the fund of knowledge that people who live in poverty have. This gap, this misunderstood difference, will cause problems in the classroom because our assumptions, based on our own fund of knowledge, will be inadequate for understanding the students, especially those who live in poverty.

Let’s go back to the statements at the beginning of this article.

Why is that child so rude?

Tawanda has a hard time listening when the teacher is presenting information. She keeps interrupting. No matter how many times the teacher asks her to wait until the end of the lesson, Tawanda just blurts out questions or comments. She does not raise her hand. She just keeps interrupting….loudly. The teacher tries ignoring the outbursts but that just seems to make the interruptions even more frequent and loud. The teacher’s frustrations make it hard to interact with Tawanda.

Is Tawanda really rude? She may live in an overcrowded household. She may have learned that to survive in chaos, she has to speak loudly and interrupt. When she manifests this behavior in school, she is simply doing what works for her at home. She is not being rude. Nor is she a discipline problem. She does not necessarily have a learning disability. Tawanda’s fund of knowledge says that when you have something to say in a group of people, you say it as loudly as you can, even if someone else is speaking.

Two different funds of knowledge. One says that you wait your turn to speak. Polite people do not yell. The other says that to survive with all those people who live in your house, you’d better speak up. The teacher is challenged to help the student learn other ways of interacting in the classroom without putting down behavior that allows the child to thrive at home.

What is wrong with that mother that she allows her daughter to come to school dressed like that?

Jenny wore the same tee shirt and jeans to school every day for a week. On occasion she had the same outfit on the next week. Her favorite attire was a purple tee shirt with Minnie Mouse on it with jeans that were an inch or two too short. Her shoes slapped when she walked because the sole of one shoe was loose. Her hair was rarely brushed.  Her socks…when she wore socks…were mismatched.

Is Jenny’s mother really uncaring? Yes, Jenny’s clothes may be dirty or in poor repair. However, can you remember a time when you had to use a laundromat to wash your clothes?  If so, you know how challenging that can be. You had to collect all your dirty clothes, carry them to the laundromat. Hopefully you had a car. You had to have the correct change and your detergent. You had to stay there while your clothes were in the washer and dryer so they were not stolen. And then you had to get your clothes together and back home again. You have just connected with the fund of knowledge that a mother who lives in poverty has. All the time and effort needed for clean clothes may have a very low priority when a woman is struggling daily to keep a roof over her family’s heads and food on the table. She may not have the time it takes to wash clothes. Her children wear what is available.

Two different funds of knowledge. One says you wear clean clothes that are in good repair when you come to school. The other says there are more important things in life than clean clothes…things such as a home and food. Neither fund of knowledge is better than the other. They are just different.  At least, Jenny is at school!

Why doesn’t he ever do his homework?

Henry never has his homework but always has an excuse about why he doesn’t. Sometimes he left it at home. Other times, a kid tore it up on the bus on the way to school. Occasionally Henry develops an attitude about homework and tells the teacher that doing homework is stupid or a waste of time.

Henry may really want to do his assignment. However, doing homework requires actually having a home. Additionally, someone needs to be at home with Henry who understands that doing homework is important.  A parent who works multiple jobs or who swings shifts may not always be available to encourage and help.  Sometimes homework is not as important for a student as making sure that younger siblings get something to eat, or working a part-time job so the family has enough rent money, or caring for an ailing grandfather. The home may be so chaotic and noisy that there’s no place to think about school work.

Two different funds of knowledge. One says that doing homework is important for school success. The other says that there are things in life that are more important than homework, things such as taking care of the people in your life.  Both funds of knowledge have value.

That child is so lazy that he sleeps in class every day!

Raymond falls asleep every day in class. He does not even try to be sly about it. He throws his head back with his mouth open so that sometimes he even snores. No matter how hard the teacher tries to engage Raymond, he falls asleep. When prodded to wake up, Raymond just glares and sits with his arms crossed over his chest.  Another teacher has the same problem with Raymond. She has talked with him and he promises to stay awake because he really connects with the teacher and especially enjoys the science lab days.  But his eyes slide to half way closed, he starts, wakes up, and before long, he’s asleep.

Is Raymond really lazy or is he sleepy? Raymond’s dad may get off work at midnight. Raymond wants to spend time with his father, so he is awake late into the night. Or his home or neighborhood may be very noisy so he can’t get a good night’s rest.  He may have responsibilities for family or friends that mean getting seven hours of sleep rarely happens.

Two different funds of knowledge. One says that children need a good night sleep on school nights. The other says that you spend time together as parent and child when you can. Or you live where you can afford, even when the conditions are unhealthy.  Or you take care of people in your life.

Realizing the differences in funds of knowledge is a powerful insight toward deciding how to ford the separation that socioeconomics can place in the middle of successful interaction between teacher and student.  For example, helping a child learn not to interrupt or speak loudly is an important process for the child’s ongoing success in school. One teacher handles this by asking students to put comments on note paper and stick them to the board. Then she responds to the notes before the end of class. Another always speaks in a soft voice. The louder the student speaks, the softer his voice becomes. When the student begins to wait for a turn to talk, the teacher rewards the new behavior in appropriate ways for the class. One teacher uses small groups to help students learn good classroom behavior. After going over with the students suitable ways to interact, she then lets the students practice their skills in their group work. Always she commends proper classroom decorum without putting down behavior that allows the child to survive at home.

A teacher helped a children “fit in” with clothes that did not cause classmates to tease or taunt by keeping a lost and found box that any child could take clothes from. The teacher “found” some of the clothes at a local thrift store, but all the children had an opportunity to pull from the box what they liked. Another told a student that his child had outgrown this outfit and he thought it would look great on this pupil. Students may not even know that their clothing is a problem because they do what is expected from home. Teachers can use compassion and empathy as they help children improve their appearance and hygiene in order to enhance learning.

A school handled the homework issue by providing early and late bus students homework assistance during that waiting time.  One teacher intentionally arrived early or stayed late to help students with homework when necessary. Other schools experiment with providing students technology that taps into the natural curiosity of children so the child discovers ways to learn that are different from the usual homework routine. Some schools build homework time into the school schedule. The worst thing to do is to allow a student who lives in poverty to not complete the tasks expected of all the students in the class. A teacher needs to be creative to help the pupil find ways that work for him or her, based on the child’s environment and fund of knowledge.

Sleepy children cannot be good learners. One school arranged for certain children to have first period as sleep time. Other teachers work with students by allowing them to stand up when they need to stay awake. Occasionally when a teacher discovered that the student could not sleep at night because of a noisy environment, she offered the child earplugs and that made the difference in the student’s motivation and classroom success.  Another educator realized that having nutritional snacks available helped a student stay awake. Some teachers that are energetic and active themselves direct the entire class stand up and do some stretching or brain activating exercises.

There are a number of things that children in poverty experience because of their living situations: lack of hygiene materials or other basic needs, fear, frequent moving, lack of being able to think sequentially, substandard houses and neighborhoods, in addition to those things already mentioned. Bringing teachers together and putting them into small groups to brainstorm how these things will affect their students and then sharing what has worked for a teacher is extremely empowering for a faculty.

A poverty simulation created by Community Action in Missouri is a tool that can help teachers enlarge their fund of knowledge in order to better connect with their students and parents. The simulation puts participants into families that range in size from one to five people. The family receives information about their demographics, income, and expenses. Their task is to keep their family housed, fed, and safe for four fifteen-minute weeks.  In order to meet this goal, they interact with various vendors such as an employer, school, grocer, pawn shop, check cashing place, mortgage company, and others. To get from home to a vendor requires a transportation ticket.  Getting from place to place quickly becomes an issue. After week two, families pick “Luck of the Draw” cards that can either improve their situations or make already difficult situations even harder.

When I am privileged to facilitate the simulation with a faculty, I watch teachers struggle with keeping their families fed, safe and alive for a month.  Each participant assumes a role within their “family”. Some are children and “go to school” for three of the four weeks.  They report that while at school, they really do not think about the worksheets that the “teacher” gives them nor do they feel compelled to complete the second week’s assignment. They are more worried about what is going on at home. Is mom or grandma able to pay the bills that week? Will they be evicted that week?  The real life teachers begin to understand why some of their students do not focus on the classroom material.

Other participants have “jobs” and report in the debriefing that they found it difficult not only to get to work but also to find time to visit all the vendors to pay their bills. They are astounded that the entire simulation ends without their interacting once with their “children.”  They report that they understand now the challenges of the parents of some of their students.

One teacher said in a debriefing session, “You know how we always tell children they cannot take food from the cafeteria? Well, I’m never going to do that again after not having food in our “family” for each of the four ‘weeks.’  We simply did not have enough time in the week to get to the grocery store. We went hungry for most of the month.”

Other participants report that they were overwhelmed financially with the need for five dollars for a school event. Some of the “children” did not even mention the request to their family because they knew there was no money. One said she chose to stay home rather than go to school when her classmates were planning a field trip. Occasionally in the simulation, a child assumes the role of primary caregiver for a disabled relative or even tries to pay bills while mom or dad are at work. Many report that they really had no conversation with their “parent”.

Within a couple of hours, teachers experience the feelings and challenges of living in poverty. They expand their funds of knowledge because for a brief time, they lived what some of their students’ families live 24/7.

The concept of fund of knowledge can open worlds of understanding when we are willing to acknowledge that my fund of knowledge is only mine. Another person has a different fund of knowledge. Our challenge and delight is finding ways to connect and form relationships so that all can learn and benefit from each other.

This article by me appeared originally in Educational Leadership, May 2013

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The Donald Trump Project

Background of the Project: As I was thinking about the massive changes occurring in our country with even more to come, I thought about what I could do. I’ve received notices about getting involved with various organizations that will work for certain issues that might be negatively affected with the new administration. I’ve thought about trying to ignore all the news about Donald Trump but that’s rather hard to do. Then the amazing holy light bulb went off. I could pray for Mr. Trump and I could invite others to pray for him also. The prayers would not be about specific pet projects or agendas facing our nation or groups of people I care about. They would not be about particular legislation. The prayers would be about the man, lifted up to God, and trusted into God’s wisdom and grace. If I truly believe in the gospel news, then prayer is where we each should start…not as a last resort but as a first.

I’ll post a prayer on Facebook several times a week for now. I invite you to join in this prayer vigil for Mr. Trump. Please add your own prayers. They do not have to be long or even especially well written. They just have to be honest.

God of New Beginnings, Mr. Trump has broken the mold of what and how a president of the United States can and should be. Guide his redesign so it aligns with your will. Amen     1.13.17

Jesus, you came to the world to save it. You came without sword and without power as the world defines it. Whisper in Mr. Trump’s heart your words for being a true change agent in this world. Amen 1.15.17

Wondrous God, you set the planets in motion and you gave the horse its mane. Your ways are beyond our understanding. Nevertheless, push Mr. Trump to seek your will in the midst of a cacophony of opinions and agendas. Amen      1.18.17

God of Grace and Truth, Mr. Trump is the president of a country that affects the entire globe because of its actions or inactions. Give him insight for your truth rather than the “truth” of special interests. Amen 1.21.17

Holy God, the psalmist says, “Do not put your trust in princes, in mortals, in whom there is no help. When their breath departs, they return to the earth; on that very day their plans perish” (Psalm 146:3-4). And yet, O God, we have a new president, Mr. Trump, who promises to make America great again. Be with him as he leads this country. Amen                    1.24.17

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A Different Kind of Mission Trip

Church groups plan mission trips for their members. They do backyard Bible schools, build buildings, paint, work in soup kitchens and any number of other activities. The participants often report what a magnificently tiring, yet spiritually uplifting experience the mission trip was.

Mission trips also have their critics. Some ask, “Who really benefits from relatively wealthy Americans coming to a developing country to help out for a week?” Or they ask, “What would the same amount of money spent to take a Mission group to a locale do if, instead, it was given to the appropriate local group to be used in their community with their citizens?”  Or others ask, “Don’t we have needs in our own community? Why do we need to fly or drive hundreds if not thousands of miles to serve?”

One local church, The Bridge, has come up with a unique way to provide the Mission Trip experience for their youth without ever leaving our area. The mission trip youth work with a variety of local groups, serving and learning about needs in their own community. Many churches do this. What makes The Bridge’s experience unique is that the youth stay with three host families in their congregation for the week of the Mission Trip. Their mission week is not a day camp but a true experience of immersion into service. What an inspiring idea!

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Martin Luther King Tribute

The Rev. Martin Luther King, Jr. was deeply grounded in scripture. His story has many parallels to the story of Jesus: “The mendicant road preaching, the travel from the margins to confront the center of power, the arrests and trials, an assassination, filled with the passion of forgiving love, even the freedom and power of resurrection — the pattern is all there.” (Bill Wylie-Kellerman, “The Gospel of the Beloved Community,” The Other Side, January February 2003) The story of Acts 10:1-11:18 of Peter’s interaction with Cornelius and ultimate conversion to include uncircumcised people into the Jesus community underscores the life-long work of Dr. King.

He has been glorified, vilified, minimized, and maximized. Whatever one personally believes about Martin Luther King, he was and is a man to be reckoned with. His words today are maybe even more powerful than they were when he first spoke them because the historical events which he was addressing continue to play themselves out in myriad ways even today.

The following are selected words from this man who has been called a prophet.

Courage and hope

Forces that threaten to negate life must be challenged by courage, which is the power of life to affirm itself in spite of life’s ambiguities. This requires the exercise of a creative will that enables us to hew out a stone of hope from a mountain of despair.

We must accept finite disappointment, but we must never lose infinite hope.

Only God is able. It is faith in …[God] that we must rediscover. With this faith, we can transform bleak and desolate valleys into sunlit paths of joy and bring new light into the dark caverns of pessimism.

When our days become dreary with low-hovering clouds and our nights become darker than a thousand midnights, let us remember that there is a great…power in the universe whose name is God and…[God] is able to make a way out of no way, and transform dark yesterdays into bright tomorrows.

Interrelatedness of Life and Service to Others

In a real sense, all life is interrelated. All … [people] are caught in an inescapable network of mutuality, tied in a single garment of destiny. Whatever affects one directly affects all indirectly. I can never be what I ought to be until you are what you ought to be, and you can never be what you ought to be until I am what I ought to be. This is the inter-related structure of reality.

The true neighbor will risk his position, …[her] prestige, and even his life for the welfare of others. In dangerous valleys and hazardous pathways, … [she] will lift some bruised and beaten brother [or sister] to a higher and more nobel life.

Life’s persistent and most urgent question is, ‘What are you doing for others?’

When an individual is no longer a true participant, when he[/she] no longer feels a sense of responsibility to his[/her] society, the content of democracy is emptied. When culture is degraded and vulgarity enthroned, when the social system does not build security but induces peril, inexorably the individual is impelled to pull away from a soulless society. This process produces alienation– perhaps the most pervasive and insidious development in contemporary society.

All too many of those who live in affluent America ignore those who exist in poor America; in doing so, the affluent Americans will eventually have to face themselves with the question that Eichmann chose to ignore: How responsible am I for the well-being of my fellow? To ignore evil is to become an accomplice to it.

An individual has not started living until he[/she] can rise above the narrow confines of his[/her] individualistic concerns to the broader concerns of all humanity.

Everybody can be great. Because anybody can serve. You don’t have to have a college degree to serve. You don’t have to make your subject and verb agree to serve. You don’t have to know about Plato and Aristotle to serve. You don’t have to know Einstein’s theory of relativity to serve. You don’t have to know the second theory of thermodynamics in physics to serve. You only need a heart full of grace. A soul generated by love.


We must forever conduct our struggle on the high plain of dignity and discipline. We must not allow our creative protest to degenerate into physical violence. We must rise to the majestic heights of meeting physical force with soul force.

Let no one pull you so low that you hate…[that person.] Always avoid violence. If you sow the seeds of violence in your struggle, unborn generations will reap the whirlwind of social disintegration.

The ultimate weakness of violence is that it is a descending spiral, begetting the very thing it seeks to destroy. Instead of diminishing evil, it multiplies it. Through violence you murder the hater, but you do not murder hat. In fact, violence merely increases hate…. Returning violence for violence multiplies violence, adding deeper darkens to a night already devoid of stars. Darkness cannot drive out darkness; only light can do that. Hate cannot drive out hate; only love can do that.

Six Principles of Nonviolence

  1. Nonviolence is a way of life for courageous people.
  2. Nonviolence seeks to win friendship and understanding.
  3. Nonviolence seeks to defeat injustice not people.
  4. Nonviolence holds that suffering can educate and transform.
  5. Nonviolence chooses love instead of hate.
  6. Nonviolence believes that the universe is on the side of justice.


Many people fear nothing more terribly than to take a position which stands out sharply and clearly from the prevailing opinion. The tendency of most is to adopt a view that is so ambiguous that it will include everything and so popular that it will include everybody.

Most people are thermometers that record or register the temperature of majority opinion, not thermostats that transform and regulate the temperature of society.

Courage faces fear and thereby masters it. Cowardice represses fear and is thereby mastered by it. Courageous…[people] never lose the zest for living even though their life situation is zestless. Cowardly…[people], overwhelmed by the uncertainties of life, lose the will to live. We must constantly build dikes of courage to hold back the flood of fear.

Hatred and bitterness can never cure the disease of fear; only love can do that. Hatred paralyzes life, love releases it. Hatred confuses life. Love harmonizes it. Hatred darkens life; love illuminates it.

Seeing ourselves.

Burnout is a surrender. We have just so much strength in us. If we give and give and give, we have less and less and less — and after a while, at a certain point, we’re so weak and worn, we hoist up the flag of surrender. We surrender to the worst side of ourselves, and then we display that to others. We surrender to self-pity and to morose self-preoccupation. If you want to call it depression or burnout, well, all right. If you want to call it the triumph of sin when our goodness has been knocked out from under us, well, all right. Whatever we say or think, this is arduous duty, doing this kind of work; to live out one’s idealism brings with it hazards.

One day we will learn that the heart can never be totally right if the head is totally wrong. Only through the bringing together of head and heart — intelligence and goodness — shall … [we] rise to a fulfillment of…[our] true nature.

The belief that God will do everything for …[you] is as untenable as the belief that …[you] can do everything for …[yourself]. It too, is based on a lack of faith. We must learn that to expect God to do everything while we do nothing is not faith, but superstition.

Injustice / War

I’m tired of this stuff about menial labor. What makes a job menial is that we don’t pay folk anything. Give somebody a job and pay them some money so they can live and educate their children and buy a home and have the basic necessities of life. And no matter what the job is, it takes on dignity.

The Western arrogance of feeling that it has everything to teach others and nothing to learn from them is not just. A true revolution of values will lay hands on the world order and say of war: ‘This way of settling differences is not just.’ … A nation that continues year after year to spend more money on military defense than on programs of social uplift is approaching spiritual death.














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Poverty Quiz 2017

How well will you do?

1.The 2017 poverty level for a family of four is:

a. $15,930 or below

b. 24,300 or below

c. $32,570 or below                                                                   Source: liheap.acf.hhs.gov

2. In 2015, the number and percentage of South Carolina residents who lived at or below the poverty level was: 

a. 471,306 or 9.5%

b. 684,634 or 13.8%

c. 897,962 or 18.1%                                                                 Source: wwwcensus.gov./quickfacts

3. Homelessness increased by what percentage in SC since 2010? 

a. 3

b. 20

c. 43                                                                                   Source: greenvillejournal.com/2015/11/27

4. The percentage and number of people ages 25+ in South Carolina with a high school diploma or higher are:

a. 76.6% or 3,800,217

b. 81.4% or 4,038,350

c. 86.7% or 4,301,290                                                                                                          Source:www.census.gov/quickfacts

5. What percentage of Greenville County residents travel in ways other than their own cars?

a. 12.4%

b. 17.8%

c. 21.1%                          Source: Piedmont Health Foundation Report, Dec. 2015

6. What percentage of people age 5+ in South Carolina speak a language other than English at home?

a. 6.9%


c. 21.4%                           Source: http://www.census.gov/quickfacts

7. Where did South Carolina rank in 2016 in the economic well-being of children? (1 is good, 50 is bad.)


b. 31

c.37                                  Source: datacenter.kidscount.org

8. Based on Housing and Urban Development (HUD) guidelines that no more than 30% of a household’s income should go toward rent/mortgage, a South Carolina worker earning minimum wage ($7.25 an hour) can afford rent of:

a.$377 a month

b.$402 a month

c.$539 a month

Source: National Low Income HousingCoalition/Out of Reach 2016

NOTE:  The fair market rate (FMR) for a two-bedroom apartment in South Carolina (2016) was $772

9. Using the HUD standard that no more than 30% of a household’s income should go toward rent, what is the hourly wage needed to afford a two-bedroom apartment in South Carolina at the FMR?



c.$17.01                        Source: National Low Income Housing Coalition/Out of Reach 2016

10. For every 100 deeply low income households in South Carolina, how many housing units are affordable and available?



c. 19                               Source: nlihc.org/Housing Spotlight

NOTE: Deeply low income (DLI) is defined as households with income at or below 15% of the Average Median Income  AMI. In SC the AMI is $45,483.)

11.Which of the following items may be purchased with food stamps? (You may choose more than one answer.)

a. Diapers

b. Comet cleanser

c. Toothpaste

d. Cigarettes

3. Fried chicken from the deli           Source: http://www.fns.usda.gov/snap/eligible-food-items

12. What is the average monthly payment which a typical Supplemental Security Income (SSI) individual receives in South Carolina?



c. $942                                                           Source: http://www.ssa.gov

13. What percentage of South Carolinians experience food insecurity?


b. 16.4%

c. 27.3%                                                          Source: map.feedingamerica.org

NOTE: Food insecurity means: “Consistent access to adequate food is limited by a lack of money and other resources at times during the year.”

14. The hourly self-sufficiency wage for a household of one adult and one preschooler in Greenville, SC, in 2016 was:

a. $11.83

b. $13.49

c. $15.67

Source: The Self Sufficiency Standard for South Carolina2016 report

15. What was the percentage of children in South Carolina under 18 who were living in extreme poverty in 2015?

a. 11%

b. 14%

c. 17.9%                                                        Source: datacenter.kidscount.org

NOTE: Extreme poverty is defined as 50% or less of the poverty line.

16. The consequences of child poverty (15-22% depending on the study) in the US is a cost of $X a year in lower earnings, lost tax revenue, and other negative long term effects.

a. $1 billion

b. $250 billion

c. $500 billion                                                       Source: Foundation Center, websearch 7.29.13

17. How many states spent more per pupil than SC did in 2014?

a. 29

b. 32

c. 43                                                                                Source: http://www.governing.com/gov

18. In 2015, what percentage of babies were born to single mothers in South Carolina?



c. 46.4%                                                                         Source: datacenter.kidscount.org

19.How is poverty measured?

a.Determine the amount of money needed to buy the lowest-cost nutritionally adequate diet identified by the United States Department of Agriculture and multiply by 3 and then account for the number of people in the household.

b.Estimate the amount of money needed to provide basic housing, clothing, food, and utilities adjusted by the consumer price index, and account for the number in the family. Source: USDA

20. As recent as 2000, Greenville had excess of low-cost rentals ($500 in today’s dollars). Today the city is short by:

a. 500

b. 1500

c. 2500

Source: City of Greenville Balancing Prosperity and Housing Affordability in Greenville report fall 2016

NOTE: SC population in 2016= 4,961,119

Answers: 1b, 2b, 3b, 4c, 5c, 6a, 7c, 8a, 9a, 10c, 11none, 12a, 13b, 14c, 15a, 16c, 17b, 18c, 19a, 20c

All rights reserved, Beth Lindsay Templeton, 2017